Verse. 203

٢ - ٱلْبَقَرَة

2 - Al-Baqara

وَاَتِمُّوا الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَۃَ لِلہِ۝۰ۭ فَاِنْ اُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْہَدْيِ۝۰ۚ وَلَا تَحْلِقُوْا رُءُوْسَكُمْ حَتّٰى يَبْلُغَ الْہَدْيُ مَحِلَّہٗ۝۰ۭ فَمَنْ كَانَ مِنْكُمْ مَّرِيْضًا اَوْ بِہٖۗ اَذًى مِّنْ رَّاْسِہٖ فَفِدْيَۃٌ مِّنْ صِيَامٍ اَوْ صَدَقَۃٍ اَوْ نُسُكٍ۝۰ۚ فَاِذَاۗ اَمِنْتُمْ۝۰۪ فَمَنْ تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَۃِ اِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْہَدْيِ۝۰ۚ فَمَنْ لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلٰثَۃِ اَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَۃٍ اِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ۝۰ۭ تِلْكَ عَشَرَۃٌ كَامِلَۃٌ۝۰ۭ ذٰلِكَ لِمَنْ لَّمْ يَكُنْ اَھْلُہٗ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ۝۰ۭ وَاتَّقُوا اللہَ وَاعْلَمُوْۗا اَنَّ اللہَ شَدِيْدُ الْعِقَابِ۝۱۹۶ۧ
Waatimmoo alhajja waalAAumrata lillahi fain ohsirtum fama istaysara mina alhadyi wala tahliqoo ruoosakum hatta yablugha alhadyu mahillahu faman kana minkum mareedan aw bihi athan min rasihi fafidyatun min siyamin aw sadaqatin aw nusukin faitha amintum faman tamattaAAa bialAAumrati ila alhajji fama istaysara mina alhadyi faman lam yajid fasiyamu thalathati ayyamin fee alhajji wasabAAatin itha rajaAAtum tilka AAasharatun kamilatun thalika liman lam yakun ahluhu hadiree almasjidi alharami waittaqoo Allaha waiAAlamoo anna Allaha shadeedu alAAiqabi


Ahmed Ali

Perform the pilgrimage and holy visit ('Umra, to Makkah) in the service of God. But if you are prevented, send an offering which you can afford as sacrifice, and do not shave your heads until the offering has reached the place of sacrifice. But if you are sick or have ailment of the scalp (preventing the shaving of hair), then offer expiation by fasting or else giving alms or a sacrificial offering. When you have security, then those of you who wish to perform the holy visit along with the pilgrimage, should make a sacrifice according to their means. But he who has nothing, should fast for three days during the pilgrimage and seven on return, completing ten. This applies to him whose family does not live near the Holy Mosque. Have fear of God, and remember that God is severe in punishment.



'Abdullāh Ibn 'Abbās / Muḥammad al-Fīrūzabādī

تفسير : (perform the pilgrimage and the visit for allah) so that he may accept them, and this by making them sincere unto him and also by performing the pilgrimage to its final completion and by performing the lesser pilgrimage to the sacred house. (and if ye are prevented) from performing the pilgrimage or the lesser pilgrimage because of enemies or ill-health, (then send such gifts as can be obtained with ease) then you should offer whatever gifts you can obtain: a sheep, cow or camel in order to leave the sacred precinct, (and shave not your heads) if you are prevented (until the gifts) that you have sent (have reached their destination) where it is going to be immolated. (and whoever among you is sick) and cannot remain in the place where he is, then he can return home before his gift reaches its destination (or hath an ailment of the head) or if his head is infested with lice, he should shave it. this verse was revealed about ka'b ibn 'ujrah who shaved his hair when still in a state of ritual consecration because it was infested with lice, (must pay ransom of fasting) the ransom is to fast three days (or almsgiving) to six needy people from the inhabitants of mecca (or offering) a sheep to be sent to the place of immolation. (and if ye are in safety) from the enemy and you have recovered from your sickness, then you should make up that which allah has made obligatory upon you in the following year, whether it is a question of the pilgrimage or the lesser pilgrimage, (then whoever contenteth himself with) perfume and clothes after (the visit) the lesser pilgrimage and until he engages in ritual consecration (for the pilgrimage (shall give) such gifts) then he should offer a sacrifice for making 'umrah before hajj (dam al-tamattu') and a sacrifice for doing hajj and 'umrah simultaneously (dam al-qaran wa'l-mut'a), whether it is a sheep, cow or camel (as can be had with ease. and whoever cannot find (such gifts)) either a sheep, cow or camel, (then a fast of three days) a fast of three consecutive days (while on the pilgrimage) in the ten days of the pilgrimage, the last of which being the day of 'arafah, (and of seven when ye have returned) on your way to your families or after you have returned to your families; (that is, ten in all) in exchange for the gifts. (that) i.e. offering a sacrifice for making 'umrah before hajj (is for him whose folk are not present at the inviolable place of worship) whose family and home is not in the sacred precinct because the inhabitants of the sacred precinct are not obligated to give the offering for making 'umrah before hajj. (observe your duty to allah) fear allah if you leave what you have been commanded to do, (and know that allah is severe in punishment) towards anyone who leaves what he has been commanded to do, whether it is the offering of gifts or fasting.

Jalāl al-Dīn al-Maḥallī

تفسير : fulfil the pilgrimage and the visitation to god, by completing them according to their due; but if you are prevented, from fulfilling them by an enemy, then [give] such offering as may be feasible, for you — a sheep — and do not shave your heads, that is, do not release yourselves from the state of pilgrimage inviolability, until the offering, mentioned, reaches its place, its place of sacrifice, that is, within the enclosure, according to al-shāfi‘ī; the sacrifice is then made with the intention of releasing oneself from the state of pilgrimage inviolability, and is divided among the needy, after which the head is shaved and the release is effected. if any of you is sick, or has an ailment of the head, such as lice or severe pains, and has thus shaved his head while in a state of pilgrimage inviolability, then, incumbent upon him is, a redemption by fast, for three days, or a voluntary almsgiving, consisting of three cubic measures of the principal food of the town for six needy persons, or a ritual sacrifice, that is, the slaughter of a sheep (aw, ‘or’, denotes freedom of choice). to this [last] has been added the [case of the] one who shaves his head without excuse because the requirement of redemption is most obvious in his case; but also [it is required in the case of] one that enjoys, without shaving, such things as scents, attire, or oils, be it with an excuse or without. when you are secure, knowing that the enemy has gone or is not present, then whoever enjoys the visitation, having completed it and observed its ritual prohibitions, until the pilgrimage, until he enters its ritual inviolability in the relevant months; let his offering be such as is feasible, for him, such as a sheep that he sacrifices after entering into the state of pilgrimage inviolability, ideally, on the day of sacrifice; or if he finds none, because there are none available, or because he does not have sufficient funds, then, incumbent upon him is, a fast of three days in the pilgrimage, that is to say, in a state of pilgrimage inviolability. in such a case, he should enter into the state of pilgrimage inviolability before the seventh of dhū’l-hijja, but ideally before the sixth, because one is discouraged from fasting on the day of ‘arafa. moreover, he should not fast during these the days of tashrīq, according to the sounder of two opinions attributed to al-shāfi‘ī. and of seven when you return, to your domicile, [be it] mecca or any other; or when you have completed the rites of the pilgrimage’ (there is a shift from the third [to the second] person); that is a full ten (this sentence reaffirms what has just been said); that, mentioned stipulation regarding the incumbency of the offering or the fast upon the person that has enjoyed [the visitation], is for him whose family are not present at the sacred mosque, so that they are not within 50 miles of the sacred enclosure, according to al-shāfi‘ī. if they are [present however], then no blood [sacrifice] or fast is obligatory in his case, even if he has enjoyed [the visitation]. the mention of ‘family’ is intended as a notification of the proviso in the case of being ‘domiciled’ [in the vicinity of the sacred mosque]. if one were to take up [temporary] residence, but not be domiciled, before the months of the pilgrimage and enjoy the visitation, then that [fast or sacrifice] will be incumbent upon him; this is one of two opinions of al-shāfi‘ī, the other being that it is not [incumbent]. the term ahl, ‘family’, is said to denote ‘oneself’. in the sunna, in addition to the one that enjoys the visitation, as mentioned, there is also the one that enters into the state of pilgrimage inviolability for both the visitation and the pilgrimage together [sc. qārin, ‘one who combines’] or in the case where the pilgrimage encroaches upon [a visitation], but before circumambulation [has been performed]. and fear god, in what he commands you and prohibits you; and know that god is severe in retribution, against whoever opposes him.

Ali ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi

تفسير : (and whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head…) [2:196]. ustadh abu tahir al-ziyadi informed us> abu tahir muhammad ibn al-hasan al-muhammadabadhi> al-‘abbas al-duri> ‘ubayd allah ibn musa> isra’il> ‘abd al-rahman al-asfahani> ‘abd allah ibn ma‘qil> ka‘b ibn ‘ujrah who said: “the verse (and whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head…) was revealed about me. i had informed the prophet, allah bless him and give him peace, that i had lice in my head [while i was in a state of ritual consecration]. he said to me: “shave your head and, as expiation, fast three days, offer a sacrifice, or feed six poor people, giving a measure of food (sa‘) for each one of them”. muhammad ibn ibrahim al-muzakki informed us> abu ‘amr ibn matar, by dictation>abu khalifa> musaddid> bishr> ibn ‘awn> mujahid> ‘abd al-rahman ibn abi layla who said: “ka‘b ibn ‘ujrah said: ‘this verse was revealed about me. i went to see the messenger of allah, allah bless him and give him peace, and he asked me to get closer to him. i moved forward to get closer to him twice or three times. then he asked me: ‘are you harmed by the vermin you carry?’ (ibn ‘awn said: ‘and i think he said that he did’) and he asked me to fast, give something to charity or slaughter whatever was available”. this report was narrated by muslim> abu musa> ibn abi ‘adiyy, as well as by bukhari> ahmad ibn yunus> ibn shihab. both ibn abi ‘adiyy and ibn shihab related it from ibn ‘awn. abu nasr ahmad ibn ‘abd allah al-makhladi> abu’l-hasan al-sarraj> muhammad ibn yahya ibn sulayman al-maruzi> ‘asim ibn ‘ali> shu‘bah> ‘abd al-rahman ibn al-asfahani who said: “i heard ‘abd allah ibn ma‘qil saying: ‘i sat with ka‘b ibn ‘ujrah in this mosque—the mosque of kufah—where i asked him about the verse (… must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering…). he said: ‘fast three days, or feed six poor people, giving each one of them half a measure of food. this was specifically revealed about me but it applies to all of you’ ”. this was narrated by bukhari from the reports of adam ibn abi iyas and abu’l-walid, and also by muslim from the report of bundar from ghundar. adam ibn abi iyas and abu’l-walid and ghundar related this narration from shu‘bah. abu ibrahim isma‘il ibn ibrahim al-sufi informed us> muhammad ibn ‘ali al-ghifari> ishaq ibn muhammad al-ras‘ini> his grandfather> al-mughirah al-saqlabi> ‘umar ibn bishr al-makki> ibn ‘abbas who said: “when we camped at hudaybiyyah, ka‘b ibn ‘ujrah came up to allah’s messenger with lice all over his forehead. he said: ‘o messenger of allah! these lice are devouring me’. the messenger of allah said to him: ‘shave your head off and offer expiation for it’. and so ka‘b shaved his head off and offered a cow for sacrifice. allah, glorious and majestic is he, then revealed regarding this incident (and whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head…)”. said ibn ‘abbas: “the messenger of allah, allah bless him and give him peace, said: ‘three days for the fast, an ewe for sacrifice, and almsgiving is to be distributed on six poor people, two dry measures for each one of them’ ”. muhammad ibn muhammad al-mansuri informed us> ‘ali ibn ‘umar al-hafiz> ‘abd allah ibn al-muhtadi> tahir ibn ‘isa ibn ishaq al-tamimi> zuhayr ibn ‘abbad> mus‘ab ibn mahan> sufyan al-thawri> ibn abi najih> mujahid> ‘abd al-rahman ibn abi layla> ka‘b ibn ‘ujrah who said: “the messenger of allah, allah bless him and give him peace, passed by him at hudaybiyyah while he was trying to lit a fire under his pot and said: ‘are the lice hurting you?’ he said: ‘yes!’ the messenger of allah said: ‘shave your hair’. then this verse was revealed (and whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head must pay a ransom of fasting or almsgiving or offering). the messenger of allah said: ‘'three days for the fast, the almsgiving is to be distributed on six poor people, two dry measures for each one of them, and an ewe for sacrifice’ ”. ‘abd allah ibn ‘abbas al-harawi informed me in writing that al-‘abbas ibn al-fadl ibn zakariyya related to them> ahmad ibn najdah> sa‘id ibn mansur> abu ‘awana> ‘abd al-rahman al-asfahani> ‘abd allah ibn ma‘qil who said: “we were sitting in the mosque when ka‘b ibn ‘ujrah came and sat with us. he said: ‘it was about me that this verse was revealed (and whoever among you is sick or hath an ailment of the head…)’. i said: ‘what happened to you?’ he said: ‘we traveled with the messenger of allah, allah bless him and give him peace, in a state of ritual consecration. lice got to my head, beard, moustache and even to my eyebrows. i mentioned this to the prophet, allah bless him and give him peace, and he said: ‘i did not know that you were suffering this much. call for the barber’. the barber came and shaved my head off. the prophet then said to me: ‘can you afford to offer a sacrifice?’ i said: no! (an ewe was to be offered as sacrifice)’. he said: ‘in that case, fast for three days or feed the equivalent of three measures to six poor people’. and so this verse was revealed specifically about me but apply to all people in general’ ”.