Verse. 1357

٩ - ٱلتَّوْبَة

9 - At-Tawba

وَمَا كَانَ الْمُؤْمِنُوْنَ لِيَنْفِرُوْا كَاۗفَّۃً۝۰ۭ فَلَوْلَا نَفَرَ مِنْ كُلِّ فِرْقَــۃٍ مِّنْھُمْ طَاۗىِٕفَۃٌ لِّيَتَفَقَّہُوْا فِي الدِّيْنِ وَلِيُنْذِرُوْا قَوْمَھُمْ اِذَا رَجَعُوْۗا اِلَيْہِمْ لَعَلَّھُمْ يَحْذَرُوْنَ۝۱۲۲ۧ
Wama kana almuminoona liyanfiroo kaffatan falawla nafara min kulli firqatin minhum taifatun liyatafaqqahoo fee alddeeni waliyunthiroo qawmahum itha rajaAAoo ilayhim laAAallahum yahtharoona


Ahmed Ali

It is not possible for all believers to go out (to fight). So a part of each section (of the population) should go (to fight) in order that the others may acquire understanding of law and divinity, and warn their companions on return so that they may take heed for themselves.



'Abdullāh Ibn 'Abbās / Muḥammad al-Fīrūzabādī

تفسير : (and the believers should not all) it is not permissible for all the believers to (go out to fight) and leave the prophet (pbuh) alone in medina. (of every troop of them, a party only should go forth) while another party should stay in medina, (that they (who are left behind) may gain sound knowledge in religion) that they may learn the religion from the prophet (pbuh) (and that they may warn) and that they may inform (their folk when they return to them) from their military expedition, (so that they may beware) in order to know that which they have been commanded to do and that which they have been prohibited from doing. it is also said that this verse was revealed about the banu asad who came to the prophet (pbuh) in medina after being hit by drought. their arrival caused prices in medina to rise and all the streets became filthy with excrement. and so allah prohibited them from this.

Jalāl al-Dīn al-Maḥallī

تفسير : when the prophet (s) was about to dispatch a raiding party — after they [certain muslims] had been reproached for staying behind — all of them went forth, and so the following was revealed: it is not for the believers to go forth, on a raid, altogether: why should not a party, a group, of every section, of every tribe, of them go forth, while the others remain behind, so that they, those who remain behind, may become learned in religion and that they may warn their folk when they return to them, from the raid, by teaching them some of the rulings which they have come to learn, so that they may beware? of god’s punishment, by adhering to his commands and prohibitions. ibn ‘abbās said that this [verse] is specifically [intended] for raiding parties, while the previous one is [specifically] to prohibit any individual staying behind when the prophet (s) sets out [on a campaign].

Ali ibn Ahmad al-Wahidi

تفسير : (and the believers should not all go out to fight…) [9:122]. al-kalbi reported that ibn ‘abbas said: “when allah, exalted is he, revealed the defects of the hypocrites due to their failure to join jihad, the believers said: ‘by allah, we will never fail to join any military conquest or expedition undertaken by the messenger of allah, allah bless him and give him peace’. so when the messenger of allah, allah bless him and give him peace, ordered the march of military expeditions to fight the enemy, all the muslims went out to fight and left the messenger of allah, allah bless him and give him peace, alone in medina. allah, exalted is he, then revealed this verse”.

Sahl al-Tustari

تفسير : … a party from each group should go forth so that they may become learned in religionhe said:[that is], in order to learn what is necessary concerning their religion. it has been related from Ḥasan al-baṣrī that he said, ‘the erudite (faqīh) is the one who has renounced this world (zāhid), who is desirous (rāghib) of the hereafter, and who has insight (baṣīr) into religious affairs. sahl was asked about the words of the prophet <img border="0" src="images/salatonmassenger.jpg" width="24" height="22">, ‘seeking knowledge is an obligation (farīḍa) for every muslim’. he said, ‘this refers to the knowledge of [one’s] state (ḥāl).’he was asked, ‘what is the knowledge of [one’s] state?’ he replied:inwardly it is sincerity (ikhlāṣ) and outwardly it is emulation (iqtidāʾ). moreover, unless a person’s outward [self] (ẓāhir) is leading his inner [self] (bāṭin), and his inner self is the perfection(kamāl) of his outward self, he will merely be fatiguing his body. he was asked, ‘what is the explanation of this?’ he said:truly god keeps watch over you, in what you keep secret and what you make known, in your [moments of] movement and stillness, and you are never absent from him even for the blinking of the eye, just as he has said, is he who stands over every soul [observing] what it has earned? [13:33], and he has said, there is not a secret consultation between three, but he makes the fourth among them [58:7]. he has also said, we are nearer to him than [his] aorta (ḥabl al-warīd) [50:16]. this is the artery located deep inside the heart, and he has informed us that he is closer to the heart than that artery. if you know this you should feel shame before him. furthermore, whenever some craving from the lower self stirs itself in the heart, and [at that moment] the servant remembers that god, mighty and majestic is he, is watching over him, and subsequently abandons [that craving], knowledge of his state will enter his heart, such that if what he is granted were to be distributed among the people of medina, all of them would rejoice at it, and would triumph because of it. mālik b. anas <img border="0" src="images/radeyallahanhom.jpg" width="24" height="22"> alluded to this point when he said, ‘knowledge is not just about how much you can relate [from memory] (riwāya) but rather knowledge is a light that god places within the heart.’he [sahl] was asked, ‘how can a man recognise his state (ḥāl) and act upon it?’ he replied:when you speak, your state is that of speech, and when you observe silence, your state is that of silence. when you stand your state is that of standing, and when you sit your state is that ofsitting. [to have] knowledge of your state you should see whether it is for god or for other than him. if it is for god you may settle in it, but if it is for other than him you should abandon it. this is the act of taking account of oneself (muḥāsaba) which ʿumar <img border="0" src="images/radeyallahanhom.jpg" width="24" height="22"> enjoined when he said, ‘call yourselves to account before you are called to account, and weigh yourselves up before you are weighed up…’ indeed, ʿumar used to beat his chest while calling himself to account.his words, exalted is he: